How to Know How Hard a Hike Will Be

By Michael Lanza

“How hard will that hike be?” That’s a question that all dayhikers and backpackers, from beginners to experts, think about all the time—and it’s not always easy to answer. But there are ways of evaluating the difficulty of any hike, using readily available information, that can greatly help you understand what to expect before you even leave home. Here’s how.

No matter how relatively easy or arduous the hike you’re considering, or where you fall on the spectrum of hiking experience or personal fitness level, this article will tell you exactly how to answer that question—and which questions to ask and what information to seek to reach that answer. This article shares what I’ve learned over nearly four decades of backpacking and dayhiking, including the 10 years I spent as a field editor for Backpacker magazine and even longer running this blog, and this knowledge can help ensure that you and your companions don’t get in over your heads.

Whether you’re new to dayhiking or backpacking, a parent planning a hike with young kids, or a fit and experienced dayhiker or backpacker contemplating one of the toughest hikes you’ve ever attempted, it’s important to have a good sense of what you’ll face on a new and unfamiliar hike and whether it’s within your abilities.

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Exceeding your limits or those of someone with you can invite unwanted consequences—and the person with the least stamina, abilities, or experience often dictates any party’s pace, limits, and outcomes. Those consequences may range from an unpleasant experience that dissuades someone from wanting to go again, to failing to reach your destination or make it back to your vehicle, potentially creating a more serious situation.

Making smart decisions comes down to understanding several objective and subjective factors—and recognizing when you may be falling victim to misjudgment because of inexperience or simple overconfidence.

Backpackers hiking to Island Lake in Wyoming's Wind River Range.
Backpackers hiking to Island Lake in Wyoming’s Wind River Range.

[As background about my experience—or perhaps just for entertainment value—see these stories about some of the hardest hikes I’ve ever done, including dayhiking the Grand Canyon 42 miles rim to rim to rim and the 32-mile Pemi Loop in the White Mountains; attempting a one-day, 50-mile traverse of Zion National Park, and a one-day, 30-mile traverse of Maine’s Mahoosuc Range; thru-hiking the John Muir Trail in seven days; and trekking New Zealand’s brutally hard Dusky Track.]

The tips below cover “hard” and “soft” measures to understand in evaluating the difficulty of any hike. Please share your thoughts on this article, questions, or tips in the comments section at the bottom of this story. I try to respond to all comments. And click on any photo to learn more about that trip.

Backpackers hiking over Clouds Rest in Yosemite National Park.
Todd Arndt and Jeff Wilhelm backpacking over Clouds Rest in Yosemite. Click photo for my e-guide “The Best Backpacking Trip in Yosemite.”

The ‘Hard’ Measures of a Hike’s Difficulty

There’s no one standard for measuring the difficulty or strenuousness of trails, but there are “hard” measures—statistics for any hike—that are commonly used as reference points.

Those stats include the most obvious one—the distance—as well as the total elevation gain and loss, or how many cumulative feet or meters you walk uphill and downhill. Those also include the actual elevations reached on the hike, because the thinner air at higher elevations—generally, above around 7,000 to 8,000 feet—will usually slow your pace and increase fatigue, but can also exacerbate dehydration and cause unpleasant symptoms like a headache or worse.

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Backpackers hiking the Continental Divide Trail in Glacier National Park.
Backpackers on the Continental Divide Trail in Glacier National Park. Click photo for my e-guides to Glacier and other parks.

Elevation gain and loss will sometimes be described as “cumulative,” meaning the sum of the uphill and downhill; in other words, a hike that goes up 1,000 feet and back down again has 2,000 feet of cumulative elevation gain and loss. Bear in mind that going downhill on a trail, especially a rugged or steep one, can be just as tiring as going uphill, and sometimes harder on leg muscles and joints.

Conversely, while hikes in mountains generally begin with going uphill and conclude with going downhill, in many canyons, it’s just the opposite: You usually go downhill first, then climb back up—and in some places, like the Grand Canyon, you might go quite far downhill before climbing back out. Don’t lose sight of how far you’re going down—which may feel remarkably easy at the beginning of a hike, when you’re fresh—and how much you will have to hike back up again.

The table below uses distance and elevation gain and loss to roughly define five categories of hikes: easy, moderate, hard, very hard, and extremely hard. These are not standardized categories; they are categories I’ve created based on more than three decades of dayhiking and backpacking with people of all abilities, from novices to highly experienced ultra-hikers and backpackers, including my children (and others) from when they were very young through their teen years.

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A hiker in Idaho's Sawtooth Mountains.
Chip Roser hiking off-trail in Idaho’s Sawtooth Mountains.

These categories are also based on many years of experience using resources, like hiking guidebooks that rate hike difficulty (and I’ve written some), and consulting professionals who design, build, and maintain trails.

The table defines each category according to distance or elevation gain and loss. For example, it rates a hike that covers either five to eight miles or more than 1,500 vertical feet of elevation gain and loss (which is the same as 3,000 feet of cumulative gain and loss) as moderately difficult—in other words, either statistic makes it that difficult. To reframe that, it means a hike on a trail of five to eight miles with little up and down would still qualify as moderate, as would a hike shorter than five miles with an uphill climb of 1,500 vertical feet. 

Hike Difficulty Rating Scale

RatingDistance ORElevation Gain and Loss (cumulative is double)
Easy5 miles or less500 feet or less
Moderate5 to 8 milesMore than 1,500 feet
Hard8 to 12 milesMore than 3,000 feet
Very Hard12 to 15 milesMore than 4,500 feet
Extremely HardMore than 15 milesMore than 6,000 feet

There’s no precise way to equate the difficulty of a specific measure of distance with a specific amount of elevation gain and loss. Interestingly, the AMC White Mountain Guide, one of the oldest, most comprehensive (it describes 1,400 trails), and probably bestselling hiking guidebooks in the country, uses an estimated hiking time formula (more on that below) of 30 minutes for each mile of horizontal distance or 1,000 feet of vertical. That presumably equates the difficulty of one mile and 1,000 vertical feet. And that’s in the White Mountains, where I’ve hiked thousands of miles and which, in my experience, have some of the rockiest, steepest, hardest trails in the country.

I know trail professionals who would dispute that, asserting that hiking 1,000 vertical feet is noticeably more strenuous than walking a flat mile. Based on my experience, I’m more inclined to equate a mile of distance with 500 to 750 vertical feet of elevation gain and loss. Trail conditions and steepness matter, too.

But that range of comparison measures provides some parameters for judging how much a hike’s difficulty increases depending on how much you walk up and downhill.

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A hiker on the Zeacliff Trail, White Mountains, N.H.
Mark Fenton hiking the Zeacliff Trail, White Mountains, N.H.

Elevation Gain Per Mile

We all know that steeper trails are harder. And while close contour lines on a map indicate steep terrain, they don’t really reveal how steep a trail is because that depends on the angle of the trail on the ground and the map’s scale. A trail that takes a more direct angle up or down a slope will be steeper—possibly much steeper—than a trail that makes switchbacks, or zigzags across the slope. 

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12 thoughts on “How to Know How Hard a Hike Will Be”

  1. Hi, that’s a very helpful article.
    I compare 1 mile to 300 ft gain or 500 ft loss of hight, in my 6 year’s experience of hiking here in Cuba.

  2. Great article… thanks so much for taking the time to write the article. These estimates seem pretty spot on for an individual of average fitness and provides an overall easy to remember guideline for the vast majority of hiking trails around the world. Of course weather and trail conditions, and elevation (among other factors like fitness level, hiking experience, rate of ascent/descent, etc.) are going to impact these guidelines, but as a general rule of thumb, for me at least anecdotally, these are a very close to spot on.

    Thanks again Michael, and happy hiking!!!

  3. Hello, and thanks for this piece!

    Understanding of course that this is all subjective, given that, might you offer a rough formula for determining how tolerable a downhill hike might be for those of us with aging knees?

    For example, if I’m considering a hike with 3000 ft of loss over 5 miles, then I guess that is about 600 ft elevation loss per mile of descent. Is that very steep, sort of steep, or not very steep? I would guess that is very steep (meaning, a lot of downhill action).

    I suppose that isn’t really enough info, as there might be 2900 feet of loss over 4 miles and 100 feet of loss in the last mile, which would be more like 725 ft of loss per mile for the first 4 miles.

    Hmm. Thoughts?

    Thanks very much : )

    • Hi Kathleen,

      That’s a fair question and probably one relevant to many hikers. While you are correct that it’s subjective and will certainly vary greatly between individuals, I’ll try to offer some insights.

      I’ve had one knee surgery, a meniscus repair that was quite successful but required months of healing and physical therapy (which I followed devotedly so I could return to hiking). Early in my recovery, descending a flight of stairs was difficult and painful. Once I was recovered, I could again take long hikes with thousands of feet of steep descent. That’s one example of the range of abilities of people with any kind of knee issues.

      Yes, the angle of descent and how it’s spread out over the hike’s distance matters as much as the total amount of vertical feet of descent. But you can use 500 vertical feet per mile as a measure indicating moderate steepness; many trail designers try to keep trail grades at no more than 500 feet per mile. Still, depending on the nature of the terrain and the soils and geology, you’ll find many trails with much steeper gradients well above 500 feet per mile and even over 1,000 feet per mile. I expect trails that steep will likely cause some pain for many people with bad knees.

      The quality of the trail will also matter: Packed dirt that provides good traction and stable ground underfoot will be easier on anyone than loose, small stones or scree or rocky trails.

      Ultimately, my advice would be to experiment with the tolerance and condition of your own knees by “taking baby steps,” if you will: Try a trail with less than 1,000 feet of total downhill and see how that goes before attempting a hike with much more total downhill. A hike with 3,000 feet of descent would be a big downhill even for people with good knees (who may feel the pounding in their quads more than their knees).

      And lately, get in the habit of using trekking poles on all of your hikes; they will save you a lot of discomfort and minimize the long-term damage to your joints. Every avid, serious hiker, backpacker, and climber I know uses trekking poles, even those people with good knees. See my stories “How to Choose Trekking Poles,” “10 Expert Tips for Hiking With Trekking Poles,” and “The Best Trekking Poles.”

      Good luck to you.

  4. That’s funny, Steve Allen and I have always said that the easy days are the days you do a lot of miles while the hardest days always have the fewest. Guess that’s because we’re never on a trail.

  5. Michael,

    You enjoy taking on challenging hikes and topics. Determining the difficulty of a hike is very complex. Worthy of a book and there would still be more to add. You captured many of the aspects. Another, which is rarely considered is the effect of the weather. An easy or moderate hike can quickly become hard or extreme if the weather changes. Both trail conditions and personal well being can be seriously impacted be it heat, rain, snow, wind or a combination thereof.

    In all of this I have one cardinal rule for my outdoor adventures: “Get home safe and healthy.” This obviously translates into getting to camp, or making a safe camp if on a multi-way or through hike. For me the philosophical mind set is the key. Reaching a summit, a vista, etc. is secondary and minor to returning safely. I have turned around countless times without reaching a summit or a desired destination. I routinely set a turn around time. I also have learned to depend on my ‘gut feeling’ on a hike , trek or climb. If trail, weather, physical performance are not right I will turn around or find a place to stop short of the desired goal.

    This requires that I am continually monitoring many of the factors that you outlined in your article. The real trail conditions, surface type can greatly affect hiking speed, elevation, length, steepness, weather, personal performance all come into play. Equally or more important is my personal psyche.

    As so many Search and Rescue professionals advise: “The most important piece of safety equipment is your brain.”. That is the same brain that tries interpret those myriad trail descriptions to truly determine what type of hike or trail you are about to encounter.

    • Always good to hear from you, John, and as always you lend insightful perspective. You are absolutely correct about weather, a factor I did not touch upon only because I did not think of it as a consistent factor, like distance or elevation gain and loss. But certainly the weather on any given day can greatly affect the hike’s difficulty, and some places have more consistently poor/cold/wet weather that creates consistently challenging trail conditions.

      I always appreciate your input. Keep up your adventures and keep in touch.