10 Tips For Getting a Hard-to-Get National Park Backcountry Permit
By Michael Lanza
The first time I backpacked in Yosemite National Park, more than 25 years ago, I applied for a permit to start at the park’s most popular trailhead, Happy Isles in Yosemite Valley—and I got it. I had no idea at the time how lucky I was. I’ve since been shot down trying to get permits for popular hikes in parks like Yosemite, Grand Canyon, and Glacier. But I’ve also learned many tricks for landing coveted backcountry permits in those flagship parks—which receive far more requests than they can fill. And the time for reserving permits is now.
Following these 10 tips won’t guarantee you get the permit you want, but I’ve had pretty good success over the years using these strategies—which I regularly update, including the information specific to each park mentioned in this story—and it often requires planning months in advance. In fact, in just the past five years, I’ve gotten permits for trips in Glacier, Great Smoky Mountains, Zion’s Narrows and Subway, The Needles District of Canyonlands, Sequoia, North Cascades, Death Valley, a very popular hike in Canada’s Kootenay, Paria Canyon (not a national park, but a backpacking trip in high demand), Yosemite twice (this trip and this one), and Grand Canyon three times (this trip and this one, and another for this May)—with zero rejected applications.
When you’re frustrated over being denied a permit for the hike you really wanted to take, keep this in mind: The permit system in parks imposes quotas on the number of backpackers in order to protect the landscape from overuse and give all of us an uncrowded, better wilderness experience. It’s a good thing.
A friendly warning: Don’t backpack without a permit. Backcountry rangers might issue you a citation for camping without a backcountry permit, which could involve a fine and a court appearance. The more immediate problem with lacking a permit for where you’re trying to camp is that all established campsites there could be occupied, leaving you the only option of camping illegally in a potentially uncomfortable spot and causing damage to a sensitive area. That’s not cool.
If I were to add an eleventh tip, it would be: When your first attempt fails, find another trip to do that year instead, and try again the next year. Wherever you go, the effort to plan and pull off that adventure will pay off.
Want a better backpack? See my picks for “The 10 Best Backpacking Packs”
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#1: Do Your Homework
Research your route in advance. Know where you want to go and how far you intend to hike each day. Keep in mind that your party’s speed will be determined by the experience and fitness level of the slowest person, and factors like the terrain’s ruggedness, total elevation gain and loss on your route, and whether it’s at high elevations. Pick campsites that make sense so you don’t increase the likelihood of either not reaching one or getting to a site so early in the day that you’re tempted to push on farther and camp illegally.
If you sound like you know your options in the park and come across as experienced, a backcountry ranger may feel more motivated to help you plan an unforgettable trip.
#2: Know When to Apply
Especially if you’re traveling a long distance for the trip, to avoid disappointment, check the park’s website months in advance for the procedure to apply for a permit reservation (it varies from park to park). Plan on applying on the earliest date possible—especially for popular hikes in parks that attract a lot of backpackers (like any parks and trails mentioned in this story). Some parks, like Glacier and Grand Teton, provide an online listing of current availability of backcountry campsites.
Some parks still do not have an online reservation system—it’s done in person (not an option for many people), by mail, fax, or over the phone. The National Park Service has an online reservation system, operated through recreation.gov, and it’s one that that many national parks use, NPS spokesman Jeffrey Olson explained to me via email. But he emphasized that “it is still up to the individual parks and regions to determine what to use to meet their needs.” The NPS anticipates that cost and efficiency incentives will gradually prompt more parks to use the recreation.gov system.
Learn a trick from river rats: Pool your efforts. Have everyone in your party submit one or more permit applications in multiple popular parks every year for whatever dates you can potentially go; maybe one will be successful. You can always cancel any you can’t use.
The permit reservation schedule for some popular parks:
• For backpacking in the Grand Canyon, you can apply about four months prior to the month in which you want to start a trip (for example, beginning between Nov. 20 and Dec. 1 for a hike beginning in April). There is a fee based on the number of people and stock in your party. Find more info at nps.gov/grca/planyourvisit/backcountry-permit.htm.
• In Yosemite, you can apply for the free permit up to 24 weeks (168 days) before the date you want to start hiking. That means that for starting on a date in late July, you would need to submit your application in early February. Find more info at nps.gov/yose/planyourvisit/wpres.htm.
• To thru-hike the John Muir Trail southbound, apply for a permit from Yosemite National Park exactly 24 weeks (168 days) in advance of the date you’d like to begin. Increase your chances by applying for a range of start dates in Yosemite. Permits for hiking northbound, starting at Whitney Portal, are reserved through a lottery system at recreation.gov; apply online between Feb. 1 and March 15. Find more info at nps.gov/yose/planyourvisit/jmtfaq.htm.
• In Zion, apply for a permit starting at 10 a.m. on the 5th of the month, two months prior to the month in which you want to take your trip—for example, apply on Feb. 5 for a trip in April. There is a fee based on the number of people in your party. Popular routes like The Narrows require a permit whether backpacking or dayhiking, and some one-day canyon descents, like The Subway, also require a permit that must be reserved three months in advance. Find more information at nps.gov/zion/planyourvisit/wildernesspermitinfo.htm.
• At Glacier, backcountry sites can be reserved online starting March 15 for groups of one to eight people, and March 1 for groups of nine to 12. There is a fee based on the number of people and backcountry nights. Find more information at nps.gov/glac/planyourvisit/backcountry-reservations.htm.
• In Grand Teton, reservation applications are only accepted from the first Wednesday in January (starting at 8 a.m. Mountain Time) through May 15; after that, all permit requests are handled first-come, first-served. Popular backcountry camping zones, like those along the Teton Crest Trail, get booked up very soon after the park starts accepting reservations in January—often within a few days, sometimes within hours. There is a fee for each permit. Find more information at nps.gov/grte/planyourvisit/bcres.htm.
• In Great Smoky Mountains, reservations may be made up to 30 days in advance of the first night of your trip. There is a fee based on the number of people and backcountry nights. Find more information at smokiespermits.nps.gov and apply at smokiespermits.nps.gov.
• Rocky Mountain starts accepting permit reservations online or in person on March 1 (starting at 8 a.m. Mountain Time) for that calendar year. Phone, mail, email and fax reservations are not accepted. There’s a fee for making a reservation. Find more information at nps.gov/romo/planyourvisit/wild_guide.htm.
• For Canyonlands, including backpacking in the Needles District and multi-day float trips on the Green River, apply up to four months in advance of your starting date. There’s a fee for each permit. Find more information at nps.gov/cany/planyourvisit/backcountrypermits.htm.
• In Sequoia and Kings Canyon, you can apply beginning on March 1 for a permit reservation during the trailhead quota period of late May through late September. There’s a fee for each permit. Find more information at nps.gov/seki/planyourvisit/wilderness_permits.htm.
• Beginning in 2018, Olympic started accepting advance reservations on Feb. 15 for permits issued for popular “quota areas” between May 1 and Sept. 30. Find more information at nps.gov/olym/planyourvisit/wilderness-reservations.htm.
• As of 2017, North Cascades offers advance reservations for up to 60 percent of campsites in popular backcountry areas, while permits for other areas are still issued only on a first-come basis no more than one day in advance. Advance permit reservations are accepted from March 15 through May 15 for the coming season. Find more information at nps.gov/noca/planyourvisit/backcountry-reservations.htm.
• Mount Rainier launched in 2017 an online reservation system that begins accepting reservations on March 15 for trips beginning through Sept. 30; after Sept. 30, permits are only issued in person at the park. There is a fee per party. Find more information at nps.gov/mora/planyourvisit/wilderness-permit.htm.
For parks like Yosemite, Zion, Grand Teton, and Grand Canyon, submit your permit application the very minute they begin accepting applications on the first date you can apply for your trip dates. You can submit more than one permit application at the same time, but make clear if you are requesting multiple permits, rather than just submitting alternative itineraries for one permit.
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#3: Plan Alternative Itineraries
Have at least one or two backup routes or date options in case you can’t get a permit for your first choice. That may be as simple as starting a day earlier or later for the same route, reversing your route’s direction, starting midweek instead of on a weekend, or choosing an entirely different, less-popular route.
At some parks, you absolutely have to prepare at least three itineraries. For instance, in Denali or Everglades, which do not accept advance reservations for permits, you will find out which backcountry zones have campsite availability when you show up at the backcountry office, so be familiar with the park map and have some ideas on where you want to go. When applying for an advance permit reservation in the Grand Canyon, include alternatives outside the park’s popular “corridor” trails (Bright Angel, South Kaibab, and North Kaibab). In Great Smoky Mountains, shelters along the Appalachian Trail are the most popular, but tenting campsites elsewhere in the park are easier to reserve. At some parks, you will be able to get useful help in selecting an itinerary from backcountry rangers over the phone or in person.
While first-time visitors to a flagship park tend to gravitate toward its best-known areas—Half Dome and the John Muir Trail in Yosemite, the Grand Canyon’s South Kaibab Trail, Mount Rainier’s Wonderland Trail, the Appalachian Trail in the Great Smoky Mountains—areas that are lesser known are often just as scenically impressive, and may give you a more rewarding experience because of a higher degree of solitude. The first time I backpacked in Rocky Mountain National Park, I went on the less-visited west side and saw waterfalls and elk and bagged a summit on the Continental Divide.
In the Grand Canyon, some 75 percent of people who apply for a permit to hike across the canyon on the South and North Kaibab trails are denied. But you will find it easier to get a permit for the 29-mile hike from Grandview Point to the South Kaibab Trailhead, or the 25-mile hike from Hermits Rest to Bright Angel Trailhead, either of which is done in three to four days and quite beautiful (as you’ll see in the photos in my stories about them), or the much more rugged, 15-mile hike from the New Hance Trailhead to Grandview Point.
Similarly, about 70 percent of hikers who apply for a permit to begin a thru-hike of the John Muir Trail in Yosemite get denied, but it’s much easier to score a permit to backpack in Yosemite north of Tuolumne Meadows or in the Clark Range, both of which are stunning.
If you’re determined to hike in a park, make any permit reservation, even if it’s not for your desired route. When you show up at the park to pick up your permit, you may be able to change it to a more-desirable itinerary, because more sites may be available than when you applied, due to cancellations and some sites being held for walk-ins. Ask a backcountry ranger for suggestions; they’re often happy to direct hikers to less-obvious areas. I have many times even called a popular park and gotten a ranger on the phone, and found that person very willing to help me figure out where I can hike.
#4: Think Small
Parks generally limit the number of people allowed on one permit, often to six or seven; otherwise, it’s considered a group permit, and there are far fewer campsites for large groups. Keeping your party small—as in two or three people—can increase your odds of landing a permit in parks where permit quotas are based on the number of campers in an area each night or departing from each trailhead daily.
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#5: Think Outside the Box
Each park has it’s own system for issuing permits; examine it and you might think up a way to work within it to get what you want or close to it. For example, in Yosemite, permits are issued according to a maximum quota of hikers starting at each trailhead in the park. Some trailheads, like Happy Isles in Yosemite Valley, are so popular it’s very difficult to get a permit to start your hike there; but you might be able to hike the same or nearly the same route by simply starting at another trailhead along it.
While it’s hard to get a permit to dayhike Yosemite’s Half Dome, it’s probably less difficult to add Half Dome to your backpacking permit because many more people apply for the dayhiking permit than do for backcountry permits. (See my Ask Me post, “Where to Backpack First Time in Yosemite.”)
#6: Camp Outside the Park
National parks often border on other public lands, like national forests, where there’s no limit on the number of backpackers—which may give you campsite options when sites or camping areas within park boundaries are full on your trip dates. For instance, Alaska Basin, along the Teton Crest Trail, is not within Grand Teton National Park; so if you can’t get a permit to spend a night on Death Canyon Shelf in the park (a gorgeous spot, by the way), Alaska Basin is a very nice alternative and may fit neatly into an itinerary for which you have the other sites you need inside park boundaries.
At other parks, like Yosemite and Sequoia-Kings Canyon, you can start your trip in a national forest wilderness area—which, in the High Sierra, are just as spectacular as the parks—and camp a night or two before entering the park, perhaps increasing your chances of getting a permit in the park.
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#7: Try For a Walk-In Permit
If all else fails, show up at the park at least an hour or two before the backcountry office opens and try to get a front spot in line for a walk-in, or first-come permit. Parks reserve a certain percentage of permits for walk-in backpackers, issuing those usually no more than a day in advance. Some parks post the current availability of backcountry campsites online; check that and prepare a hiking itinerary accordingly before you show up. Expect applying for a walk-in permit to take anywhere from 20 minutes to an hour, possibly longer, especially in parks like Yellowstone, Glacier, and Denali, where you’re required to watch a video about camping safely in bear country.
Start a trip from a less-popular trailhead and you might be able to land campsites in more-popular areas later in your trip.
The difficulty of landing a first-come permit varies during the peak hiking seasons: At Zion, Yosemite, Glacier, and Grand Teton, you might get lucky and score a permit to start that day, but plan on having to wait at least one day. At Grand Canyon, Denali, and Everglades, you may not be able to start your trip until two or three days after you first start waiting in line. If you don’t get one of the available permits the first day you show up—you’ll often know within an hour—you will have to return each morning until you do.
See my story “How to Get a Last-Minute, National Park Backcountry Permit.”
Get the right tent for you. See my “Gear Review: The 5 Best Backpacking Tents”
and my “5 Tips For Buying a Backpacking Tent.”
#8: Go Outside Peak Season
I’ve always been amazed at how few backpackers there are in the Tetons in September, when, while it could snow, you can often enjoy perfect weather. In Yosemite and Sequoia-Kings Canyon, and sometimes at Mount Rainier and Rocky Mountain, good hiking weather can extend into October. At Sequoia-Kings Canyon, the 2018 quota season ends on Sept. 22, and at Mount Rainier the permit-reservation season ends Sept. 30; if you have a good forecast after those dates, you are guaranteed to get a last-minute permit.
I backpacked Zion’s hugely popular Narrows (which has since been closed to backpacking) and dayhiked The Subway (which requires a permit that’s hard to get) in early November in very pleasant weather (albeit short days) and low water (a plus); I saw a good forecast and grabbed a permit through the park’s Last Minute Drawing system for claiming unreserved campsites—a good method for getting a Zion permit if you have the flexibility to act on short notice. Good weather and hiking conditions can last into late autumn and return by late spring in Great Smoky Mountains.
In mountain parks, the most popular season extends from early or mid-July to Labor Day. In desert parks like Grand Canyon and Zion, it’s April, May, September, and October. Although summers are too hot for backpacking, watching for a good forecast and going in early spring or late fall means you will have a much easier time getting a permit.
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#9: Go to a Less-Popular Park
Okay, this tip and the next one don’t help you land a permit for a popular hike—but they do offer alternatives worth considering if you fail to get that desired permit. National parks that are off the radar of most backpackers are never a disappointment. At two of my favorite Western parks, North Cascades and Capitol Reef, walk-in permits are relatively easy to obtain (although North Cascades does accept reservations for popular areas).
Go where others don’t. See my “Top 5 Backpacking Trips For Scenery and Solitude.”
#10: Dayhike It
When all efforts to secure a permit to camp in the backcountry fail, ask yourself: Is it possible to dayhike all or part of my route or another trail in the same area? It’s often easier to hike a long distance in one day than it is to carry a heavy backpack a shorter distance. Choose well-maintained, well-graded trails and keep your pack light, and if you have the stamina for it and can average even a modest 2 mph pace over a 10-hour day, you can cover 20 miles.
See my stories “Training For a Big Hike or Mountain Climb” and “10 Tricks For Making Hiking and Backpacking Easier,” and all of my stories about ultra-hiking at The Big Outside.
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